The Commissioners

Amy Bloom, MD

Senior Strategy and Policy Advisor for the TB Division, USAID

After graduating from Smith College, Dr. Bloom received her medical degree from Albany Medical College of Union University and completed her residency in Internal Medicine at the University of Rochester.

After several years in practice as an intensivist and emergency room physician, she joined the Public Health Service assigned to CDC as the Virginia Department of Health Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officer.

Following EIS, Dr. Bloom became a preventive medicine resident in the Respiratory and Childhood Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases at CDC Atlanta headquarters. She served as a medical epidemiologist in the HIV section of the Women’s Health and Fertility Branch, Division of Reproductive Health at CDC, where she worked on HIV shedding and mucosal immunity, as well as the development of HIV preventive technologies.

Dr. Bloom also participated in CDC’s response to the Ebola outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, heading the epidemiology team. The following year she became an American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Science, Engineering, and Diplomacy Fellow assigned to USAID. Since then, she has worked for CDC and USAID on a broad range of TB and HIV care issues in more than 25 countries, providing technical assistance to many international, national and local agencies, governments and NGOs.

While serving at USAID, Dr. Bloom developed the TB program, later becoming the Acting Chief for the Division of Infectious Diseases covering TB, malaria and NTDs. She has served as a subject matter expert on multiple committees and boards, including the WHO TB Strategic and Technical Advisory Group and the Tropical Disease and Research Joint Coordinating board, as well as the Stop TB Partnership, where she served as the Acting Chair of the Board. 

Barry Bloom, PhDBarry Bloom, PhD

Harvard University Distinguished Service Professor, Joan L. and Julius H. Jacobson Professor of Public Health, Harvard School of Public Health, USA

A leading scientist in the areas of infectious diseases, vaccines and global health and former consultant to the White House, Dr. Barry Bloom continues to pursue an active interest in bench science as the principal investigator of a laboratory researching the immune response to tuberculosis.

He has been extensively involved with the World Health Organization (WHO) for more than 40 years and currently chairs the Technical and Research Advisory Committee to the Global Programme on Malaria at WHO. He has been a member of the WHO Advisory Committee on Health Research and chaired the WHO Committees on Leprosy Research and Tuberculosis Research, and the Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee of the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases. Dr. Bloom serves on the editorial board of the Bulletin of the World Health Organization.

Dr. Bloom currently serves on the Ellison Medical Foundation Scientific Advisory Board and the Wellcome Trust Pathogens, Immunology and Population Health Strategy Committee. He is on the Scientific Advisory Board of the Earth Institute at Columbia University and the Advisory Council of the Paul G. Rogers Society for Global Health Research. His past service includes membership on the National Advisory Council of the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the Scientific Advisory Board of the National Center for Infectious Diseases of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the National Advisory Board of the Fogarty International Center at the National Institutes of Health, as well as the Governing Board of the Institute of Medicine.

Dr. Bloom was the founding chair of the board of trustees for the International Vaccine Institute in South Korea, which is devoted to promoting vaccine development for children in the developing world. He has chaired the Vaccine Advisory Committee of UNAIDS, where he played a critical role in the debate surrounding the ethics of AIDS vaccine trials. He was also a member of the US AIDS Research Committee.

Dr. Bloom came to Harvard School of Public Health to serve as Dean of the Faculty in 1998. He stepped down December 31, 2008 and is currently a Harvard University Distinguished Service Professor. In his capacity as Dean, he served as Secretary-Treasurer for the Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH). Prior to that he served as chairman of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine from 1978 to 1990, the year in which he became an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, where he also served on the National Advisory Board. In 1978, he was a consultant to the White House on international health policy.

Dr. Bloom holds a bachelor’s degree in biology and an honorary D.Sc. from Amherst College and a Ph.D. in immunology from Rockefeller University.

He is a past president of the American Association of Immunologists and the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. He received the first Bristol-Myers Squibb Award for Distinguished Research in Infectious Diseases, shared the Novartis Award in Immunology in 1998, and was the recipient of the Robert Koch Gold Medal for lifetime research in infectious diseases in 1999. Dr. Bloom is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, Institutes of Medicine, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Philosophical Society.

Catharina Boehme, MDCatharina Boehme, MD

Chief Executive Officer, FIND

Dr. Catharina Boehme leads FIND, an international non-profit organization based in Geneva, Switzerland that enables the development and delivery of much-needed diagnostic tests for diseases of poverty, including TB, malaria, hepatitis C, HIV, sleeping sickness and other neglected tropical diseases. She joined FIND in 2005 with a focus on clinical trials and laboratory strengthening

Dr. Boehme holds a Doctor of Medicine in internal medicine from Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich, Germany, as well as diplomas in public health and in management and leadership. She serves on several public health advisory committees (e.g. Horizon 2020 Dx) and is a World Health Organization (WHO) TB Strategic and Technical Advisory Group member.

Prior to joining FIND, she worked as programme coordinator for the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Munich and established a TB research unit at Mbeya Medical Research Program in Tanzania.

Richard E. Chaisson, MDRichard E. Chaisson, MD

Director, Johns Hopkins Center for Tuberculosis Research

Richard E. Chaisson, MD, is professor of medicine, epidemiology and international health and directs the Center for AIDS Research and the Center for Tuberculosis Research at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, MD.

From 1988-1998, Dr. Chaisson led the Johns Hopkins AIDS Service, a clinical program providing care to about 3,500 people with HIV and conducted research on the natural history and treatment of the disease. He was medical director of the Baltimore City Health Department’s Tuberculosis Control Program from 1992-1998. In 1998, he founded the Johns Hopkins Center for TB Research, a multidisciplinary institute dedicated to the study of TB from bench to bedside to community.

Dr. Chaisson’s research interests focus on tuberculosis and HIV infection, including epidemiology and natural history, clinical trials, diagnostics and public health interventions. He has been a principal investigator in the CDC’s TB Trials Consortium since its inception in 1994. From 2002-2014 he organized and led the Consortium to Respond to the AIDS-TB Epidemic (CREATE), a Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation-sponsored research consortium studying novel public health approaches to reduce the burden of HIV-related TB.

Since 2011, Dr. Chaisson has served as chair of the TB Transformative Science Group of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. In 2012, he reestablished the Johns Hopkins Center for AIDS Research (CFAR), revitalizing a multidisciplinary program to catalyze innovative HIV research, with a special focus on combatting the Baltimore epidemic. He co-chairs the South African Regional Prospective Observational Research on TB (RePORT) Consortium Steering Committee. Dr. Chaisson has published more than 490 scientific papers and chapters, and his Handbook of Tuberculosis, co-edited with Jacques Grosset, was published in 2017.

He received his BS and MD degrees from the University of Massachusetts and trained in internal medicine, infectious diseases and clinical epidemiology at the University of California, San Francisco.

Daniel Chin, MD, MPHDaniel Chin, MD, MPH

Deputy Director, TB Program Strategy Team, Global Health Programs, The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Dr. Chin joined the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2007 and currently is responsible for the foundation’s work in TB delivery, including: oversight of the foundation’s TB programs in India, China and South Africa; working with global partners; all aspects of product delivery; and product development support. From 2007-15, he served as the senior program officer for TB in the foundation’s China office where he was responsible for the foundation’s TB projects in China. From 2012-14, he was also responsible for all HIV projects. In his capacity, he worked with the Chinese Ministry of Health and other national and international partners to develop projects ranging from implementation of new tools (diagnostics, drugs and medication monitor) to demonstration of comprehensive programs to tackle the TB and HIV problems in China.

Prior to joining the Gates Foundation, Dr. Chin served as the World Health Organization country adviser on TB to the Chinese Ministry of Health from 1999 to 2007. He was the main international TB expert providing policy and technical support to the Ministry, the China CDC and other international partners as the country scaled up the WHO-recommended DOTS program nationwide. He helped to formulate the essential policies, programs and financing for the current national TB control program in China and has extensive experience implementing and evaluating large-scale public health programs.

Prior to working in China, Dr. Chin was on the faculty at the University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine where he received his medical training. In addition, he worked in public health at state and city levels in the United States.

Gavin Churchyard, MNChB, MMED, FCP, PhD Gavin Churchyard, MNChB, MMED, FCP, PhD

Founder and Group Chief Executive Officer, Aurum Institute

Professor Churchyard leads the Aurum Institute, an independent, not for profit, proudly South African, public benefit organization that focuses on TB and HIV health system strengthening, implementation and research in South Africa and eight other sub-Saharan African countries.

Prof Churchyard is a specialist physician, internationally renowned for his research in TB and HIV. He is the chair of the World Health Organization Task Force for new TB drugs and regimens and serves on many other WHO expert committees.

Prof Churchyard plays an international leadership role in TB research and is the vice-chair of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Transformative Science Group for TB, and is the co-chair of the TB vaccine working group in the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN). He is the outgoing chair of the South African TB Think Tank which advises the National Department of Health on TB policy. Professor Churchyard has published more than 220 publications on TB and HIV.

Helen Cox, PhDHelen Cox, PhD

Associate Professor, Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Helen Cox, an epidemiologist, is a member of the Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. Dr. Cox has previously worked in tuberculosis programmes run by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and South Africa. She was awarded the Union Scientific Prize in 2015 and holds a Wellcome Trust intermediate fellowship in public health and tropical medicine.

Dr. Cox has worked in the area of tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis since 2001. Her research interests range from the molecular epidemiology of drug-resistant TB DR-TB) through assessing the impact of new diagnostics for TB to appropriate models of care for drug-resistant TB treatment. Further research interests include the use of new and repurposed drugs in novel treatment regimens for DR-TB, cost analysis of different approaches for DR-TB treatment and the application of a human rights approach to improving the effectiveness of, and access to, DR-TB treatment.

Lucica Ditiu, MDLucica Ditiu, MD

Executive Director, Stop TB Partnership

A native of Romania, Dr. Lucica Ditiu is a physician and a public health expert who has devoted her career to helping those affected by tuberculosis and people living in communities heavily burdened by TB.

Dr. Ditiu began her international career with the WHO in January 2000 as a medical officer for TB in Albania, Kosovo and Macedonia within the disaster and preparedness unit of the WHO European Regional Office. In this role, she worked in a very challenging environment and closely collaborated with main national stakeholders involved in TB care, including ministers of health, justice and development. In 2006 she was selected to be a medical officer in the TB unit of the European Regional Office in Copenhagen.

In January 2010, Dr. Ditiu joined the Stop TB Partnership Secretariat in Geneva to lead the TB REACH initiative - a programme that awards grants up to US$ 1 million for improving access to TB treatment. She was named executive director in 2011.

A 1992 graduate of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Bucharest, Dr. Ditiu completed a specialty in pulmonology through a joint programme with the Romanian National Institute of Lung Diseases (Marius Nasta).

Mark Dybul, MDMark Dybul, MD

Faculty Director, Center for Global Health and Quality, Georgetown University Medical Center
Professor of Medicine, Georgetown School of Medicine

Mark Dybul has worked on HIV and public health for more than 25 years as a clinician, scientist, teacher and administrator. After graduating from Georgetown Medical School in Washington D.C., Dr. Dybul joined the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, where he conducted basic and clinical studies on HIV virology, immunology and treatment optimization, including the first randomized, controlled trial with combination antiretroviral therapy in Africa.

Dr. Dybul was a founding architect and driving force in the formation of PEPFAR. After serving as a chief medical officer, assistant, deputy and acting director, he was appointed as its leader in 2006, becoming U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, with the rank of Ambassador at the level of an Assistant Secretary of State. In 2009, Dr. Dybul returned to the Georgetown to serve as co-director of the Global Health Law Program at the O’Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law and was a Distinguished Scholar. In 2013, he served as executive director of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Dr. Dybul returned to Georgetown in July 2017 as the inaugural faculty director of the Center for Global Health and Quality. He has written extensively in scientific and policy literature and has received several honorary degrees and awards.

Jeremy FarrarJeremy Farrar

Director, Wellcome Trust

Before joining Wellcome in October 2013, Dr. Farrar was Director of the Oxford University Clinical Research Unit in Vietnam for 18 years. His research interests were infectious diseases, tropical health and emerging infections. He has published over 500 peer-reviewed scientific papers, mentored many dozens of students and fellows, and served as Chair on several advisory boards for governments and global organizations, including the World Health Organization. He was named 12th in Fortune's list of the World's 50 Greatest Leaders in 2015.

He was appointed OBE in 2005 for services to tropical medicine, was awarded the Memorial Medal and the Ho Chi Minh City Medal by the Government of Vietnam, and has been honored by the Royal College of Physicians in the UK and the American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. He is a Fellow of both the Academy of Medical Sciences and the Royal Society.

Anthony S. Fauci, MDAnthony S. Fauci, MD

Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health

Anthony S. Fauci, MD, a physician-scientist, oversees an extensive research program on infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, influenza, tuberculosis, Ebola and Zika, as well as diseases of the immune system.

Dr. Fauci also serves as one of the key advisors to the White House and Department of Health and Human Services on global infectious disease issues. He was one of the principal architects of PEPFAR, a program that has saved millions of lives throughout the developing world. Dr. Fauci also is the long-time chief of the NIAID Laboratory of Immunoregulation where he has made numerous important discoveries related to HIV/AIDS and is one of the most-cited scientists in the field.

He is a member of the US National Academy of Sciences and the US National Academy of Medicine, and has received numerous awards for his scientific and global health accomplishments, including the National Medal of Science, the Robert Koch Medal, the Mary Woodard Lasker Award for Public Service and the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Dr. Fauci has been awarded 43 honorary doctoral degrees and is the author, co-author or editor of more than 1,300 scientific publications, including several major textbooks.

Endalkachew FekaduEndalkachew Fekadu

Managing Director, Volunteer Health Services, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Endalkachew (Endy) Fekadu is a Pharmacist and Managing Director, Volunteer Health Services, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. As an MDR TB survivor, activist, founder of the Ethiopian drug information network and VHS, he brings to the Commission a perspective on TB that addresses the needs of the patient community.

Representing both the professionals and patient community groups, he has had the opportunity to engage in many TB/HIV and malaria control initiatives/advocacy related to prevention, diagnosis and treatment. His has knowledge and experience in TB/HIV and malaria-related global health policy, market dynamics of health commodities, countries regulatory and legal issues and supply chain management, ACSM, patient charter preparation, UN/HLM priorities.

Paula I. Fujiwara, MD, MPHPaula I. Fujiwara, MD, MPH

Scientific Director, International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union)

Dr. Paula I. Fujiwara, was seconded by the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to The Union in 2001. She has since served as director of both the departments of HIV and TB and became scientific director in June 2013, with responsibility for overseeing all technical departments and projects of The Union. Dr. Fujiwara and her team developed the successful Integrated HIV Care for TB Patients Living with HIV/AIDS (IHC) Programme in Africa and Asia, as well as related courses and a technical guide. She has provided technical assistance to numerous national TB programmes and represents The Union on key committees, such as WHO's STAG-TB, as well as serving as a senior advisor to Vital Strategies, The Union's affiliate in North America.

Prior to coming to The Union, Dr. Fujiwara was seconded by CDC to New York City's Bureau of TB Control, during which time the incidence of TB declined by more than two-thirds and MDR-TB almost disappeared. She completed her medical training at the University of California, Davis and UC San Francisco and also holds a master of public health and a master of science degree from UC Berkeley. She has published scholarly articles on the public health aspects of TB control and MDR-TB.

Eric Goosby, MD, Commission ChairEric Goosby, MD, Commission Chair

UN Special Envoy on Tuberculosis
Professor of Medicine, UCSF
Director, Center for Global Health Delivery and Diplomacy, UCSF Institute for Global Health Sciences

In January 2015, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Eric Goosby to be the UN Special Envoy on Tuberculosis (TB). As Special Envoy, he works to promote awareness of TB, both to encourage people to get tested and to send a message to world leaders that more resources are needed to make the world free from TB.

From 2009-2013, he served in the Obama administration as Ambassador-at-Large and U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, overseeing the implementation of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). He also led the State Department’s Office of Global Health Diplomacy.

As CEO and Chief Medical Officer of Pangaea Global AIDS Foundation, 2001-2009, he played a key role in the development and implementation of HIV/AIDS national treatment scale-up plans in South Africa, Rwanda, China and Ukraine.

During the Clinton administration, Dr. Goosby was director of the Ryan White Care Act at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and later served as deputy director of the White House National AIDS Policy Office and director of the Office of HIV/AIDS Policy at HHS.

Timothy Hallett, PhD Timothy Hallett, PhD

Professor of Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, School of Public Health, Imperial College, London
Affiliate Associate Professor at the University of Washington, Department of Global Health

Dr. Hallett is based at the Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology in the School of Public Health at the Imperial College London.

He does work with the Applied HIV Epidemiology research group centres on the development and application of mathematical models for interpreting surveillance data, analyzing control trials and planning interventions. The overall aim of this research is to come to conclusions about the optimal use of limited resources in the response to HIV epidemic worldwide.

Dr. Hallett directs the HIV Modelling Consortium, which is a network epidemiologists, mathematical modelers and health-economists. He also works with UNAIDS and the Reference Group on Estimates, Modelling and Projections in developing the methods for calculating international AIDS statistics.

Dr. Hallett serves on the PEPFAR Scientific Advisory Board and is a member of the editorial board of PLoS Medicine.

Christy Hanson, PhD, MPHChristy Hanson, PhD, MPH

Senior Programme Officer, TB Delivery Team, Global Health Programs, The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Associate Professor, International Studies, Macalester College

Christy Hanson joined Macalester in 2011 as the Hubert H. Humphrey Distinguished Professor. In 2012, she was named dean of the Institute for Global Citizenship and served the college in this role until the end of 2015. She re-joined the faculty full-time in 2016. Concurrently, Professor Hanson serves as a senior policy advisor to the Global Health Bureau of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), through an inter-agency partnership arrangement with Macalester.

Prior to joining Macalester, Dr. Hanson was the Chief of Infectious Diseases for USAID and had previously held positions with the World Health Organization, World Bank and PATH.

In her teaching and research, Dr. Hanson draws from over 20 years’ experience in international public health. Her primary area of research is the dynamic between poverty and infectious diseases. She has published more than 20 articles and book chapters, and has made significant contributions to her field through public scholarship conducted in collaboration with the governments of various low-income countries. Dr. Hanson has worked in more than 50 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America, providing technical and policy development guidance to Ministries of Health.

Dr. Hanson is currently a member of the World Health Organization’s Strategic and Technical Advisory Group, and is on the boards of directors of the American Refugee Committee and Helen Keller International. She is a member of the International Advisory Board to McGill University’s Global Health Program. Hanson holds a master’s in public health from the University of Minnesota and a PhD in international health systems with a health economics concentration from Johns Hopkins University.

Mark HarringtonMark Harrington

Executive Director, Treatment Action Group

Born and raised in San Francisco, Mark Harrington joined the seminal AIDS activist group, ACT UP (the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power)/New York in 1988, five years after receiving his bachelor’s degree in history and photography from Harvard University. As a member of ACT UP’s Treatment and Data (T+D) Committee, Harrington helped plan and execute ACT UP’s “Seize Control of the FDA” demonstration in 1988 and its “Storm the NIH” demonstration in 1990. The events helped initiate a fundamental shift in how the US Food and Drug Administration, the US National Institutes of Health and other government agencies addressed the emergency posed by the HIV pandemic in the United States.

In 1992, Harrington co-founded the Treatment Action Group (TAG) with a group of T+D members to form a long-term non-profit non-governmental organization dedicated to advocating for research, treatment, prevention and cure of HIV/AIDS. He has been executive director since 2002. He wrote and edited many reports for ACT UP and TAG, including three editions of the National AIDS Treatment Research Agenda (1989–91). In 2000, TAG expanded its work to focus on the leading coinfections killing people with HIV around the world: TB and hepatitis C virus (HCV).

Harrington served on the US Department of Health and Human Services Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents from 1996 to 2008. He was a member of the writing group that produced and updated the WHO Guidelines for Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in Resource-Limited Settings, 2002—2010, and a member of the WHO advisory groups for TB and for HIV. He also served on the Stop TB Partnership’s Global TB/HIV Working Group and its Multidrug-Resistant (MDR)-TB Working Group.

Harrington has coauthored papers published in The Lancet, PLoS Medicine, Science. Currently Harrington is a member of New York State’s AIDS Advisory Council’s Ending the Epidemic (EtE) Subcommittee, the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Tuberculosis Transformational Science Group (TB TSG) and the ACTG/IMPAACT networks’ joint A5300B/IMPAACT 2003B/PHOENIx “Protecting Households on Exposure to Newly Diagnosed Index Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients (PHOENIx MDR TB)” protocol team. He lives and works in New York City.

The Honorable Nick Herbert, MP The Honorable Nick Herbert, MP

Member, House of Commons
Co-chair, the All Party Parliamentary Group on Global TB
Co-chair, the Global TB Caucus

Nick Herbert is the Conservative Candidate for Arundel and South Downs. He was first elected as an MP in May 2005 and was re-selected to stand in the 2017 general election. In December 2005, David Cameron appointed Herbert as the Shadow Minister for Police Reform. In July 2007, he was promoted to the Shadow Cabinet as Shadow Secretary of State for Justice. In January 2009, he was appointed Shadow Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Herbert served as Minister of State for Policing and Criminal Justice, working in both the Home Office and Ministry of Justice, from May 2010 until he resigned in September 2012.

Prior to his election, Herbert was the director of Reform, the independent think tank, which he co-founded in 2002. From 1998 to 2000, Herbert was chief executive of Business for Sterling, where he launched the successful ‘no’ campaign against the euro. In the 1997 election, he stood as the Conservative Parliamentary candidate in Berwick Upon Tweed. From 1990 to 1996 he worked for the British Field Sports Society, becoming its director of political affairs. In this role, he played a leading role in setting up the Countryside Movement, which became the Countryside Alliance.

Since becoming an MP, Herbert has worked closely with international development NGOs on the growing problem of tuberculosis, especially in developing countries. In 2006 he helped to form, and co-chairs, the All Party Parliamentary Group on Global TB, and in 2014 he launched the Global TB Caucus which he co-chairs with South Africa's Health Minister, initiating the Barcelona Declaration with a speech to the World Lung Conference.

Nick attended Haileybury, where he won an Open Exhibition to read Law and Land Economy at Magdalene College, Cambridge.

Philip C. Hopewell, MDPhilip C. Hopewell, MD

Professor of Medicine, UCSF School of Medicine
Co-founder and Director, Curry International Tuberculosis Center, UCSF; Past President, The American Thoracic Society, New York

Dr. Hopewell practices pulmonary and critical care medicine at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital (ZSFGH). He is a former associate dean of UCSF, responsible for the academic programs at ZSFGH, and is currently the director of the Curry International Tuberculosis Center, which provides education, technical assistance, and training in TB to domestic and international audiences.

Dr. Hopewell’s academic career has focused on clinical and epidemiological studies of tuberculosis and HIV-associated pulmonary conditions in both low-incidence and high-incidence settings. In the early days of the HIV epidemic in San Francisco, Dr. Hopewell and his colleagues described many of the pulmonary manifestations of HIV. He was principal investigator of the Pulmonary Complications of HIV Study, a large U.S.-based cohort study, which provided many of the first insights into management of these patients. He has had a long-running community-based study of the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in San Francisco.

Currently, Dr. Hopewell has an active research and technical assistance program in Tanzania, evaluating the feasibility of TB contact investigation in both urban and rural settings as well as examining novel routes of TB transmission and working to develop a program for treating MDR-TB. He has been very involved in providing technical advice to the World Health Organization and dozens of national TB programs on a variety of programmatic policies.

Chieko Ikeda, MD, MPH, MSChieko Ikeda, MD, MPH, MS

Senior Assistant Minister for Global Health
Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan

Before recently assuming the position of Senior Assistant Minister for Global Health in the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Dr. Ikeda was director for the Advanced Medical Science Division, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

Dr. Ikeda received her medical degree from Tsukuba University, School of Medicine in 1988, and a master of public health and a master of science from Harvard University School of Public Health in 1996. Dr. Ikeda has more than 17 years of experience in health care policy and management in the Japanese government, Prefectural government, as well as working with international organizations, including WHO and UNAIDS. Dr. Ikeda’s career-long interest has been how to promote human health care through innovation in the field of life science and administration system reform.

Dean Jamison, PhDDean Jamison, PhD, Commission, Co-Chair

Professor Emeritus, Global Health, University of Washington School of Public Health
Senior Fellow in Global Health Sciences, UCSF

In 2006-2008, Dean Jamison served as the T. & G. Angelopoulos Visiting Professor of Public Health and International Development in the Harvard Kennedy School and the Harvard School of Public Health. Previously, Jamison had been at UCLA (1988-2006) and at the World Bank (1976-1988). His last position at the World Bank was director, World Development Report Office and lead author for the Bank’s 1993 World Development Report, Investing in Health. His publications are in the areas of economic theory, public health and education. Jamison was co-first author with Lawrence Summers of Global Health 2035, the report of the Lancet Commission on Investing in Health (The Lancet, December 2013).

Jamison studied at Stanford (M.S., Engineering Science) and at Harvard (Ph.D., Economics, under K.J. Arrow). In 1994, he was elected to membership in the National Academy of Medicine.

Aamir Khan, PhD, MBBSAamir Khan, PhD, MBBS

Executive Director, Interactive Research & Development (IRD); Executive Director, Global Health Directorate, Indus Health Network; Associate in Global Disease Epidemiology and Control, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Aamir Khan is an epidemiologist and social entrepreneur based in Karachi, Pakistan and Dubai, UAE. He has trained in medicine at the Aga Khan University in Karachi and has a PhD in international health from the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore.

In 2004, Khan founded Interactive Research and Development (IRD), a social enterprise committed to improving global health and development through process and technology innovations. IRD has global health delivery teams based in offices in Karachi, Dubai, Johannesburg, Dhaka and Jakarta supporting programs in 17 countries. IRD is a principal implementation partner to the Indus Hospital in Karachi, the Aurum Institute in Johannesburg, and the Harvard Medical School Center for Global Health Delivery–Dubai.

He is currently testing social business models for the delivery of affordable lung health and diabetes care in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Pakistan; scaling routine immunization programs using conditional cash transfers in Pakistan, South Africa and Ethiopia; implementing TB/HIV screening and treatment programs among mining populations in South Africa; and developing sustainable models of free surgical care in Pakistan.

In addition to his own work, he has helped draft Pakistan’s successful USD 173 million Global Fund Round 9 application for scaling up MDR-TB treatment in Pakistan; and has supported its implementation in Sindh and Baluchistan provinces through the Indus Hospital TB Program. Aamir Khan is a member of the leadership team of endTB, a USD 60 million UNITAID grant to introduce new TB drugs for patients with XDR-TB and complicated MDR-TB, and of Challenge TB, a USAID-funded USD 525 million five-year cooperative agreement to accelerate the global fight against TB. He is an inaugural member of the Board of Directors of two leading open-source software consortiums: OpenMRS, an electronic medical records system, and OpenSRP, a smart register for frontline health workers providing integrated health care.

Irene KoekIrene Koek

Senior Deputy Assistant Administrator, Global Health Bureau, United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Washington, DC

Prior to her current position, Irene Koek was the senior infectious disease advisor for the Global Health Bureau and the Global Health Security Agenda lead at USAID. From 2010-2014 she was director of the Health Office in USAID/Indonesia where she also served as health attaché and PEPFAR coordinator. After her return to Washington from Indonesia and until April 2015, Ms. Koek served as the deputy director of the Office of Population and Reproductive Health in the Global Health Bureau.

Koek joined USAID in 1986. Starting in the Office of Population, she moved to the Policy and Program Coordination Bureau in 1995 as a health advisor, addressing maternal and child health, family planning and infectious disease issues. In 1998, she became the chief of the Infectious Disease Division in the Global Health Bureau, overseeing staff and programs for malaria, tuberculosis and neglected tropical diseases. In that role, she helped to start the President's Malaria Initiative and served as chair of the Stop TB Coordinating Board.

Ms. Koek has a master of arts degree from George Washington University.

Nalini Krishnan, MDNalini Krishnan, MD

Director-Projects, Resource Group for Education and Advocacy for Community Health (REACH), Chennai, India

Dr. Krishnan is an M.D. in internal medicine with a strong interest and practice in public health. One of the founding members of REACH, an organisation which works to bridge the gap between public health programs and the target recipients by advocacy, education, building partnerships and multi sector networks to control Tuberculosis.

REACH has conceptualized and implemented a successful private provider engagement intervention for the past 18 years in Chennai, Tamilnadu, India, engaging with private healthcare providers, private hospitals, laboratories, NGOs and corporate sector to provide different levels of care and support to TB patients, working closely at all times with the NTP.

REACH has worked with a patient centred approach and “continuum of care “framework. Started the “Touched by TB” patient advocacy group in India with support of the Stop TB Partnership. Currently implementing the USAID supported “Call to Action “project in 6 states in India to advocate for increased resources, provide technical support to address implementation gaps.

His Excellency Aaron Motsoaledi, MDHis Excellency Aaron Motsoaledi, MD

Minister of Health, The Republic of South Africa
Chair, Coordinating Board, Stop TB Partnership

Dr. Motsoaledi has been the Minister of Health since 11 May 2009. He is also a member of the African National Congress (ANC) National Executive Committee.

Prior to his appointment as Minister of Health of the Republic of South Africa, Dr. Motsoaledi served as a chairperson of the Sekhukhune Advice Office from 1986 to 1994; as a chairperson of Hlahlolanang Health and Nutrition Education Project in 1989; as a deputy chairperson of the African National Congress (ANC) in the then Northern Transvaal from 1991 to 1992; as head of the ANC Elections Commission for Limpopo Province in 1994; as head of the ANC Economic and Infrastructure Desk and as head of the ANC Research and Briefing of election Task Team in Limpopo in 1994.

Dr. Motsoaledi has also served as a member of the Limpopo Provincial Legislature from 1994 to 2009; as a member of the Limpopo Provincial Executive Council (MEC) for Education from 1994 to 1997; MEC for Transport from 1998 to 1999 and MEC for Agriculture, Land and Environment in 1999.

Dr. Motsoaledi holds a Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery from the University of Natal. He attended high school education at Setotolwane High School.

Madhukar Pai, MD, PhDMadhukar Pai, MD, PhD

Canada Research Chair in Epidemiology & Global Health, McGill University, Montreal
Director, McGill Global Health Programs
Associate Director, McGill International TB Centre

Madhu Pai’s research is mainly focused on improving the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis, especially in high-burden countries like India and South Africa. He has more than 300 publications. He is recipient of the Union Scientific Prize, Chanchlani Global Health Research Award, Haile T. Debas Prize, and David Johnston Faculty & Staff Award. He is a member of the Royal Society of Canada, and a Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences.

Pai serves as a consultant to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. He serves on the Strategic and Technical Advisory Group-TB committee of WHO, Geneva; Scientific Advisory Committee of FIND, Geneva; and Access Advisory Committee of TB Alliance, New York. He has previously served on the Coordinating Board of the Stop TB Partnership. He is on the editorial boards of Lancet Infectious Diseases, PLoS Medicine, eLife, PLoS ONE, International Journal of TB and Lung Disease, among others.

Pai did his medical training and community medicine residency in Vellore, India. He completed his PhD in epidemiology at UC Berkeley, and a postdoctoral fellowship at UCSF.

Nimalan Arinaminpathy (Nim Pathy), D. Phil.Nimalan Arinaminpathy (Nim Pathy), D. Phil.

Senior Lecturer, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London

Pathy applies mathematical and statistical tools to study transmission dynamics of infectious diseases. A major focus of his research is in the interface between health/economic systems and infectious diseases, particularly in the context of human tuberculosis. This includes understanding how health systems shape the control of infectious diseases, studying financing mechanisms for the supply of drugs to countries in need.

Pathy trained in applied mathematics (BA Cambridge 2000, D.Phil. Oxford 2005); between these programmes he spent a year as a scientist in a government research lab (Dstl, 2001). Following his D.Phil., he trained in mathematical epidemiology as a postdoctoral researcher, first at the University of Oxford and then at Princeton University (USA) before finally returning to the UK.

Mario Raviglione, MDMario Raviglione, MD

Director, Global Tuberculosis Programme, World Health Organization (WHO)

At WHO, Dr. Mario Raviglione was responsible for the development and implementation of the global TB and MDR-TB surveillance & monitoring system, and for setting norms, policies and standards on global TB care and control. He managed the team that developed the Stop TB and End TB Strategies in the context of the Millennium Development Goals and the Sustainable Development Goals, respectively.

Dr. Raviglione served as WHO focal point for the health agenda at the G8 Summit in Italy in 2009, and was responsible for the 2011 World Health Day on antimicrobial resistance. He is among the ten most cited authors worldwide in the field of TB with 37,000 citations and an h-index of 92. Dr. Raviglione has worked in more than 50 countries and has served as a visiting professor and lecturer in various universities worldwide. He serves as member of several important committees. Dr. Raviglione is among the top 20 Italian scientists in clinical sciences and has received various international awards for his work on TB and global health.

Dr. Raviglione graduated from the University of Turin in Italy with a degree in medicine and surgery, and trained in internal medicine, infectious diseases and AIDS at the Cabrini Medical Centre in New York and Beth Israel Hospital at Harvard Medical School in Boston.

Michael Reid, MD, MPHMichael Reid, MD, MPH

Commission Coordinator
UCSF School of Medicine
Center for Global Health Delivery and Diplomacy, UCSF Institute for Global Health Sciences

Mike Reid has just completed an infectious disease fellowship at UCSF and works in the Institute for Global Health Sciences Center on Global Health Diplomacy and Delivery. He is involved with policy analyses, research and agenda-setting activities related to improving care delivery for people in sub-Saharan Africa living with HIV, TB and other chronic diseases.

He is also an infectious disease physician within the Positive Health Practice "Ward 86" at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital. Prior to joining UCSF, he spent five years working in PEPFAR-funded programs in Africa and was the lead physician in the University of Pennsylvania’s Global Health program in Gaborone, Botswana for three years.

Dr. Reid has published more than 40 peer-reviewed articles. He holds a master’s degree in public health from UC Berkeley and completed his medical school training at Cambridge University and Imperial College, London.

Almaz Sharman, MD, PhDAlmaz Sharman, MD, PhD

Professor of Medicine; President, Academy of Preventive Medicine of Kazakhstan; CEO, Health City LLC, Almaty, Kazakhstan

A native of Kazakhstan and a citizen of the United States, Dr. Sharman has 30 years’ experience in the fields of biomedical science, clinical research, and healthcare management.

Currently, Dr. Sharman is president of Academy of Preventive Medicine, which works to improve the quality of personal and community health of the people of Kazakhstan. Prior to this, Dr. Sharman, served as Deputy Chairman of Executive Board at Nazarbayev University and Chairman of the Board of University’s Center for Life Sciences.

In 2008, Almaz Sharman founded National Medical Holding and served as its first Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board. Dr. Sharman also founded Medtronic country office for Kazakhstan. As a researcher Dr. Sharman designed a methodology for integrated population-based HIV testing, which was implemented in several developing countries and has become a standard methodology for the international demographic and health surveys. Dr. Sharman was also involved in university teaching as Associate at the Johns Hopkins University’s Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Priya Shete, MDPriya Shete, MD

Assistant Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care, UCSF and Zuckerberg SF General Hospital, San Francisco
Consultant, Global Tuberculosis Programme, World Health Organization

Priya Shete, MD, focuses on leveraging multisectoral research to develop evidence-based implementation strategies for improving access to quality tuberculosis care. She seeks to advance social protection and tuberculosis research agendas and strategies at both the global and local level that account for the socioeconomic impact of TB. She is also developing and evaluating interventions to overcome social and economic barriers to care using methods in implementation research, modeling and health economics, primarily in Uganda, Brazil, Viet Nam and South Africa.

Dr. Shete attended Johns Hopkins University and Yale University School of Medicine before completing her training in internal medicine and in pulmonary and critical care medicine at UCSF. In addition to her research and policy work, Dr. Shete maintains a clinical practice, attending in San Francisco's TB Clinic as well as in the Intensive Care Units at UCSF.

Veronika SkvortsovaVeronika Skvortsova

Minister of Healthcare of the Russian Federation

Dr. Veronika Skvortsova has been the Minister of Healthcare of the Russian Federation since her appointment in May 2012.

She is a neurologist and has a background in neuropathology. Prior to her appointment as Minister of Healthcare, Dr Skvortsova was Deputy Minister of Healthcare and Social Development.

From 2005-2008, she was the Director of the Russian Stroke Research Institute. Dr Skvortsova is an elected associate member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.

Peter M. Small, MD Peter M. Small, MD

Jim and Robin Herrnstein Chair
Founding Director, Global Health Institute, Stony Brook University, NY

In August 2015, Peter Small joined Stony Brook University as the founding director of the University-wide Global Health Institute focused on the use of innovation to reduce poverty, ecological devastation and disease in Madagascar and other poor countries. This work includes online teaching and drones to deliver TB care.

Immediately prior to joining Stony Brook, Dr. Small worked for the Gates Foundation for nearly 13 years where he was responsible for developing the foundation’s tuberculosis strategy, building the program’s core partnerships and country programs, hiring and managing the TB team, overseeing the vaccine, drug and diagnostic product development activities and serving as the foundation’s voice for tuberculosis. In 2011, he relocated to India where he established the foundation’s tuberculosis program in India.

Dr. Small completed his post-graduate training in internal medicine at UCSF and infectious diseases at Stanford University before spending about a decade on the faculty of Stanford’s Division of Infectious Disease and Geographic Medicine. He has published more than 150 articles including molecular epidemiologic studies that helped to shape the public health response to the resurgence of tuberculosis in the USA in the 1990s and seminal papers on the origin, nature and consequence of genetic variability within the species M. tuberculosis. He is a member of Alpha Omega Alpha, American Society for Clinical Investigation and is a fellow in the American Academy of Microbiology. He was the 2002 recipient of the Princess Chichibu Global TB Award for his pioneering contributions to global tuberculosis control.

Soumya Swaminathan, MD, MBBSSoumya Swaminathan, MD, MBBS

Commission, Co-Chair
Secretary, Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India
Director General, Indian Council of Medical Research

Prior to her current positions, Dr. Soumya Swaminathan was Director, National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis (NIRT) in Chennai.

She joined the Tuberculosis Research Centre, Chennai in 1992 and has spent the past 23 years in health research. Her research interests include pediatric and adult tuberculosis, epidemiology and pathogenesis, the role of nutrition and HIV-associated TB. She also served for two years as coordinator, Neglected Tropical Diseases at TDR.

Dr. Swaminathan holds many professional memberships such as International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (Chair, HIV Section 2009-11); member, International Scientific Advisory Expert Group for the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Global Tuberculosis (APPG TB), UK; and member, Third World Organization of Women Scientists. She also serves as a member, UNAIDS Expert Panel and member, Scientific and Technical Advisory Group, WHO Stop TB department. In addition, she serves on many national committees of the health ministry, DBT, DST and national institutes like AIIMS and Indian Institute of Science.

After completing her MBBS from AFMC, Pune and MD in pediatrics from AIIMS, New Delhi, further training included a fellowship in neonatology and pediatric pulmonology at the Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles, University of Southern California, USA and a research fellowship in the Dept. of Pediatric Respiratory Diseases, University of Leicester, UK.

Zelelem Temesgen, MD Zelelem Temesgen, MD

Professor of Medicine, Consultant, Division of Infectious Diseases Director, HIV Program
Director, Global HIV Education Initiative, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, USA

Dr. Zelalem Temesgen MD is an infectious diseases physician and a professor of medicine at Mayo Clinic, where he established and directs the Mayo Clinic HIV program, the Mayo Clinic Global HIV Education Initiative and the Mayo Clinic Center for Tuberculosis. In addition to clinical responsibilities, Dr. Temesgen is actively involved in education and research both within Mayo Clinic and extramurally, participating in the clinical teaching curriculum for the Mayo Medical School and the Mayo Graduate School of Medicine as well as the Infectious Diseases Division.

Additional activities include media presentations, extramural visiting professorships and invited lectures at national and international meetings. Dr. Temesgen is the editor-in-chief of the journal “Clinical Journal of Tuberculosis and other Mycobacterial Diseases,” and two books: Mayo Clinic Infectious Diseases Board Review Book and Fundamentals of Global HIV Medicine. Dr. Temesgen currently serves as the immediate past chair of the American Academy of HIV Medicine, a member of the US Department of Health and Human Services Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents and a member of the World Health Organization Taskforce on Digital Health for Tuberculosis. Dr. Temesgen has previously served as a member of the United States Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS as well as a member of the Scientific Advisory Board for PEPFAR.

Kitty Van Weezenbeek, MD, PhD, MPHKitty Van Weezenbeek, MD, PhD, MPH

Executive Director, KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation

Kitty van Weezenbeek is Executive Director of KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation. She started her career as a provincial tuberculosis (TB) officer in the Netherlands. Her 34–year ‘TB career’ is characterized by a mix of different TB-related national and international positions, including leading positions at the World Health Organization (WHO) headquarters in Geneva, and the WHO Western Pacific Regional Office.

During her career she held chair positions of several influential global working groups such as the Global Green Light Committee and the global Stop TB Partnership Working Group on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Kitty delivered technical assistance to more than 25 countries worldwide and contributed to more than 40 publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals. Over the years she has served on various expert panels and global guideline committees. In her capacity as Executive Director, she combines managerial and technical responsibilities.

Anna Vassall, PhD Anna Vassall, PhD

Professor of Medicine, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), Department of Global Health and Development, London, United Kingdom

Anna Vassall is a health economist with more than 25 years of experience in economic analysis in low- and middle-income countries. Her first degree is in economics. She then worked in the NHS supporting funding/contracting. She then took an MSc in Health Planning and Financing at the LSHTM, thereafter working for DFID as a health economist in the UK and Pakistan. This was followed by a period at Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) Amsterdam working on health planning and financing, aid effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis and reproductive health in a wide range of low- and middle-income countries. Thereafter she directed and provided economic support to European Community and World Bank-funded health sector reform and development projects in Yemen, East Timor, Syria and Sudan. Her PhD is in economic evaluation from the University of Amsterdam.

Vassall leads the economic evaluation and priority-setting group in the Department of Global Health at LSHTM. She has worked at LSHTM since 2010, specializing in the economics of HIV, sexual and reproductive health, gender-based violence prevention and tuberculosis. She has led a wide range of economic analyses on HIV prevention for key populations (Avahan programme), the integration and organization of HIV care and treatment services (Integra project) and new diagnostics for TB (Xpert MTB/RIF). She has an interest in incorporating a health systems and the patient perspective into economic evaluation and priority setting.

Vassall is a founding member of the TB-MAC modeling consortium and sits on the WHO's STAG Global TB Programme (STAG-TB) and Task Force on Catastrophic Cost Measurement for TB. She is a lead investigator of the Global Health Costing Consortium, a Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation-funded project to estimate and analyze HIV, TB and other health service costs globally.

Nandita VenkatesanNandita Venkatesan

Journalist, the Economic Times, India

Nandita Venkatesan is a journalist, a TEDx speaker, a classical dancer and a 2 time-Intestinal Tuberculosis survivor as well as patients-rights advocate. She lost over 90% of her hearing at 24, due to a rare after-effect of a TB injection.

In her 8-year-long arduous battle, she first got TB in 2007 as an undergraduate student and then, suffered a life-threatening reinfection in 2013, during which she had to undergo six major surgeries + over 200 injections, was bedridden for over 2 years and suffered severe side effects like memory loss, low sugar and kidney malfunctioning, apart from deafness. Determined to fightback her TB and disability, she gave dance performances WITHOUT hearing to music and started working recently with the Economic Times newspaper. She is a passionate advocate for quicker diagnosis, lesser stigma, focus on women survivors and the need for less-toxic drugs, and regularly handholds patients to complete the treatment. Her awareness initiatives have been profiled across several national, regional and international media organisations like BBC, Reuters, Huffington Post, The Hindu, Times of India, Mirror Now, Franklin Templeton Investments etc.

She won the prestigious ICICI Advantage Women Award (out of 19,000 entries, presented the 3rd place), Rotary India’s Vocational Excellence Award and REACH Media Award for her work.

Gavin Yamey, MD, MPH, MAGavin Yamey, MD, MPH, MA

Professor of the Practice of Global Health and Public Policy; Director, Center for Policy Impact in Global Health
Associate Director for Policy, Duke Global Health Institute; Director, Duke Geneva Global Health Fellowship

Gavin Yamey MD, MPH, MA is the Director of the Center for Policy Impact in Global Health, an innovative policy lab that addresses critical challenges in financing and delivering global health.

He trained in clinical medicine at Oxford University and University College London, medical journalism and editing at the BMJ and public health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He was Deputy Editor of the Western Journal of Medicine, Assistant Editor at the BMJ, a founding Senior Editor of PLOS Medicine, and the Principal Investigator on a $1.1 million grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to support the launch of PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. In 2009, he was awarded a Kaiser Family Mini-Media Fellowship in Global Health Reporting to examine the barriers to scaling up low cost, low tech health tools in Sudan, Uganda and Kenya.

Dr. Yamey previously served on two international health commissions, the Lancet Commission on Investing in Health and the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery. He has been an External Advisor to the WHO and to TDR, the Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases. Dr. Yamey has published extensively on global health, neglected diseases, health policy, and disparities in health and has been a frequent commentator on National Public Radio. He directs the Global Health Track in Duke's Program on Global Policy and Governance in Geneva.

Before joining Duke, Dr. Yamey led the Evidence-to-Policy Initiative in the Global Health Group at the UCSF Institute for Global Health Sciences and was an associate professor of Epidemiology & Biostatistics at the UCSF School of Medicine.